Food systems are characterised by inequities in every component, from production through to consumption. This paper seeks to make sense of various perspectives and concepts that account for the multiple forms of inequity. We unpack the notion of food equity by outlining distinct and diverse theorisations of equity in selected fields of study and exploring their influences in the food domain, by reference to prominent food concepts such as food aid, food security, food systems, food justice, and agroecology. By comparing different perspectives, we derive a framework for the analysis of food equity. This framework asks questions about whom to target, at what scale, temporality, and whether equity refers to outcomes, processes, or both. It also highlights the need to interrogate how equity is pursued vis-à-vis established structures of power. This is a pluralistic framework, in recognition of the distinct ethics and politics associated with the range of equity perspectives and food concepts reviewed. Methodological and ethical considerations in researching food equity are identified as areas for further exploration.