Show simple item record

dc.contributor.authorIdris, Iffat
dc.identifier.citationIdris, I. (2022). Use of online space in Pakistan targeting women, religious minorities, activists and voices of dissent. K4D Helpdesk Report 1112. Brighton, UK: Institute of Development Studies. DOI: 10.19088/K4D.2022.071en
dc.description.abstractThere is ample evidence that online hate speech in Pakistan is directed against women, religious minorities, journalists, voices of dissent and activists. The targeting of many of these groups is an expansion online of the traditional hostility and abuse they face offline. However, the internet has made such abuse easier and online hate speech is growing as internet use rises in the country. Those responsible vary somewhat: women and religious minorities are typically targeted by religio-political parties and their followers, while journalists and activists are often targeted by government/the military. In all cases, online hate speech can have a serious offline impact, including physical violence, and restrictions on people’s freedom/ability to work/post online. This review, looking at online hate speech in Pakistan in relation to particular groups, draws largely on reports by think-tanks/NGOs as well as media articles and blogs. Relatively little academic literature was found on the subject, but grey literature was quite extensive, especially on certain religious minorities (Ahmadis) and women.en
dc.description.sponsorshipForeign, Commonwealth and Development Office (FCDO)en
dc.publisherInstitute of Development Studiesen
dc.relation.ispartofseriesK4D Helpdesk Report;1112
dc.subjectSocial Protectionen
dc.titleUse of Online Space in Pakistan Targeting Women, Religious Minorities, Activists and Voices of Dissenten
dc.rights.holderCrown copyright 2022en
rioxxterms.funderDepartment for International Development, UK Governmenten

Files in this item


This item appears in the following Collection(s)

  • K4D [937]
    K4D supports learning and the use of evidence to improve the impact of development policy and programmes. The programme is designed to assist the Foreign, Commonwealth and Development Office (FCDO) and other partners to be innovative and responsive to rapidly changing and complex development challenges.

Show simple item record