Factor structure of the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking Figural Form A in Kiswahili Speaking Children: Multidimensionality and Influences on Creative Behavior
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The Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT) was developed in 1966 and has been translated into more than 35 languages (Millar, 2002). It is the most used and referenced creativity test (Davis, 1997; Lissitz & Willhoft, 1985). This study carried out in poor areas of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania with 125 Kiswahili speaking children aged 8–12 years old had two aims. First to investigate the structure of creativity in a sample of African children and second to explore any creativity correlations with children’s environment and background. These findings could go some way to considering the cross-cultural transferability of the TTCT. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to compare four theoretical models originally proposed by Kim (2006) to investigate whether creativity might also be multidimensional in the case of poor African children. Indeed a model of two correlated factors − adaptive and innovative, best explained the creativity construct in this case. The model was then used to explore creativity correlations with children’s environment and background factors. The total creativity index score was found to be correlated with the child’s birth order, fluency of English in the household and self-perceptions of the child. This research provides some evidence for the valid use of the TTCT in sub-Saharan Africa.