Changing Patterns of Migration and Remittances: A Case Study of Rural Ghana
Teye, Joseph Kofi
Appiah Kubi, Johnson Wilson
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Using a migration dataset on Ghana, this paper examines the changes in migration and remittance patterns of households interviewed in 2015 and 2018. Our findings indicate that migration statuses of a majority of household members have not changed in the last three years. While political narratives suggest exodus of Africans to Europe, our data shows that a majority of migrants moved to destinations within Ghana and Africa. Although a larger proportion of emigrants in Ghana is made up of males, migration streams are being feminized. Our multivariate analysis shows that social networks are strong determinants of migration. We also observe gender differences in the reliance on social networks to facilitate migration, with women being more likely to have contacts at destination prior to migrating. A majority of migrants in both waves depended on their personal savings for migration. The proportion of migrants funding their trips through loans from family and friends have increased between 2015 and 2018, while the proportion that financed migration through borrowing outside the family and sale of assets declined. Our data shows that annual real cash remittance received by households over the three-year period have increased by about 27% in 2018 and that many of the migrant households left behind have reportedly depended on remittances to enhance wellbeing. The findings suggest the need for policy makers to develop programmes to leverage remittances for development.
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- Working Papers