The Practices and Challenges of School-Based Supervision in Government Secondary Schools of Kamashi Zone of Benishangul Gumuz Regional State
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The purpose of this study was to assess the practices of school-based supervision in government secondary schools of Kamashi Zone. Five basic questions were formulated, which emphasized the extent to which teachers understand about the school-based supervision in secondary schools of Kamashi Zone, the various supervisory options applied by supervisors in these schools, the procedures employed classroom observation in the secondary schools, the extent to which school-based supervisors discharge their responsibilities and the challenges existing in the implementation of school-based supervision. To conduct this study, the descriptive survey method was employed. One Zonal and five Woreda Education Office supervision coordinators were selected through purposive sampling technique. Among the 10 government secondary schools found in the Zone, 5 of them were selected randomly as sample schools. From these sample schools, 5 principals and 30 school-based supervisors (5 unit leaders and 25 heads of department) were also included as respondents using purposive sampling technique. Furthermore, 84 teachers have participated in the study through availability sampling technique. Questionnaire was used as main tool of data collection. Interview and document analysis were used to substantiate the data gathered through questionnaires. Frequency, percentage, mean and t-test were utilized to analyse quantitative data gained through the questionnaires. The qualitative data gathered thorough interview and document analysis were by narration. The result of the study indicated that teachers lack awareness and orientation on the activities and significance of school-based supervision, ineffectiveness of the practices of supervisory options matching with the individual teacher’s developmental level, and inability of supervisors to apply the necessary procedures for classroom observation properly. On the other hand, among the factors influencing the school-based supervision, lack of relevant training programs for supervisors, scarcity of experienced supervisors in school-based supervision activities, lack of supervision manuals in the schools and shortage of allocated budget for supervisory activities. Finally, to minimize the problems of school-based supervision in secondary schools, it is recommended to give relevant in-service trainings for supervisors to upgrade their supervisory activities, necessary resources such as supervision manuals and an adequate budget for the success of supervision at the school level was suggested.