Subsistence accounting and development planning in Africa.
Malima, Kighoma A.
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The United Nations Economic Commission for Africa defines subsistence activities as "the production of goods and services which are subsequently found to have, been directly used by their producers and not exchanged for money" (14: p.41). Thus, the concept of subsistence production is essentially an ex-post one. It is possible to know how much of the rice produced, for example, is subsistence after both the total rice produced and the marketed surplus have been established .