Jaw fractures in Nigerian children: an analysis of 102 cases
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Objectives: To present the prevalence and pattern of jaw fractures in children aged 15 years and below attending two hospitals serving as referral centres for facial injuries in North Eastern Nigeria. Design: Retrospective Cross Sectional Study. Settings: Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, Borno State, Nigeria. Subjects: One hundred and two patients with jaw fractures aged 15 years and below. Main Outcome Measures: Aetiological factors and pattern of jaw fractures in children aged 15 years and below. Results: We retrospectively reviewed 102 patients with jaw fractures aged 15 years and below seen over a five year period at two referral centres in Maiduguri, Northeastern Nigeria. This constituted 9.5% of the total 1074 cases of maxillofacial injuries managed during the period. The male to female ratio was 7.5:1 and there was a male reponderance in all age groups. The main causes of fractures were road traffic accident (n=55, 53.7%) followed by falls (n=26,25%). Other etiological factors such as fights, sports and gunshots accounted for the remaining cases. The mandible was the commonest site with the body commonly fractured (n=74, 72.5%). No Le Fort III fractures were identified in this study. Conclusion: Despite some limitations to our data, such as exclusion of patients who attended private clinics and lack of modern diagnostic methods, this report shows that there is obvious need for concern about the high. prevalence of maxillofacial injuries in children caused by road traffic accidents, in North Eastern Nigeria.