A patriarchy transformed: reproducing labor and the viability of smallholder agriculture in Kisii
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This paper presents a historical analysis of the transformation of agricultural production and rural society in Kisii from the pre-colonial era through the present. Using a materialist approach, it outlines the key elements of the pre-colonial economy and society, analyzes the colonial transformation of that economy, and finally provides an analysis of current smallholder economy and its integration with the larger Kenyan economy. The goal is to address the question of how the reproduction of labor takes place and the transformation it has undergone over this century in order to assess the viability of smallholder agricultural production in Kisii today as a means of reproducing labor and as a basis of wealth generation within the larger context of Kenyan capitalism. The analysis is based on past historical and anthropological literature on Kisii, as well as eight months of field research this year in South Wanjare Location, Kisii.