Action for Empowerment and Accountability (A4EA) is an international research programme which explores how social and political action can contribute to empowerment and accountability in fragile, conflict, and violent settings, with a particular focus on Egypt, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nigeria and Pakistan.

The programme is led by the Institute of Development Studies (IDS) and is being implemented by a consortium which also includes: the Accountability Research Center (USA), the Collective for Social Science Research (Pakistan), the Institute of Development and Economic Alternatives (Pakistan), Itad (UK) Oxfam (GB and Myanmar), and the Partnership for African Social and Governance Research (Kenya). It is funded by UK aid from the UK Government.

Recent Submissions

  • Algumas Notas Sobre a Acção Cívica no Contexto da COVID-19 em Moçambique 

    Pereira, Crescêncio; Forquilha, Salvador; Shankland, Alex (IESE, 2022-01-11)
    This paper analyses how civil society organisations (CSOs) explore the possibilities that exist to undertake civic action in a context of COVID-19 in Mozambique. The analysis explores some of the strategies that CSOs use ...
  • Women and Protest Politics in Pakistan 

    Khan, Ayesha; Jawed, Asiya; Qidwai, Komal (Routledge, 2021-12-07)
    This article draws on qualitative research on five different gendered contentions in Pakistan: a feminist mobilisation, a protest against child sexual abuse, a workers’ mobilisation for greater employment benefits, an ...
  • Women Organising in Fragility and Conflict: Lessons from the #BringBackOurGirls Movement, Nigeria 

    Atela, Martin; Ojebode, Ayobami; Makokha, Racheal; Otieno, Marion; Tade, Aina (Taylor & Francis Group, 2021-12-07)
    Public protests, including women-led struggles, are increasingly gaining a foothold in many parts of the world in response to multiple crises and growing exclusion, in a context of fragility. In the global South, most ...
  • Commissions of Inquiry and Pathways to Accountability in Plateau State, Nigeria 

    Oosterom, Marjoke; Sha, Dung Pam; Dowd, Caitriona (Cambridge University Press, 2021-12-01)
    For decades, Plateau State in Nigeria's Middle Belt has witnessed repeated ethnoreligious violence. Over this period, both state and federal governments have established formal Commissions of Inquiry (COIs) in response to ...
  • Understanding Governance from the Margins: What Does It Mean In Practice? 

    Barnes, Katrina; Anderson, Colin; de Chassy, Stephanie; Ahmed, Affaf; Ali, Mudabbir; Aung, Myo Min; Chaimite, Egidio; Joshi, Anuradha; Khan, Danyal; Loureiro, Miguel; Posse, Lucio; Rowlands, Jo; Shankland, Alex; Wazir, Rizwan (Institute of Development Studies, 2021-11-29)
    What does governance look like ‘from below’ – from the perspectives of poor and marginalised households? How do patterns of conflict affect that? These were the questions at the heart of the Governance at the Margins ...
  • Revisitar o Espaço Cívico Moçambicano em Tempo de Crise 

    Pereira, Crescêncio; Forquilha, Salvador; Shankland, Alex (IESE, 2021-11-08)
    With the emergence of the Covid-19 pandemic, there has been an increased attention on the state-citizen relationship, and the fact that many governments have used the law to restrict civic space, for example by putting ...
  • Energy Protests and Citizen Voice 

    McCulloch, Neil (Institute of Development Studies, 2021-10-29)
    Recent years have seen energy protests erupt in many countries around the world. Globally, countries are wrestling with the need to achieve a just transition away from fossil fuels while at the same time ensuring access ...
  • An Exploration of the Association Between Fuel Subsidies and Fuel Riots 

    McCulloch, Neil; Natalini, Davide; Hossain, Naomi; Justino, Patricia (Institute of Development Studies, 2021-10)
    Between 2005 and 2018, 41 countries had at least one riot directly associated with popular demand for fuel. We make use of a new international data set on fuel riots to explore the effects of fuel prices and price regimes ...
  • Demanding Power: Do Protests Empower Citizens to Hold Governments Accountable over Energy? 

    Hossain, Naomi; Agbonifo, John; Atela, Martin; Gaventa, John; Gonçalves, Euclides; Javed, Umair; McCulloch, Neil; Natalini, Davide; Oosterom, Marjoke; Ojebode, Ayobami; Shankland, Alex (Institute of Development Studies, 2021-09)
    Energy protests are becoming increasingly common and significant around the world. While in the global North concerns tend to centre around climate issues, in the global South the concerns are more often with affordable ...
  • Demanding Power: Struggles over Fuel Access in Nigeria 

    Atela, Martin; Ojebode, Ayobami; Aina, Omotade; AGBONIFO, JOHN; Oosterom, Marjoke; Makokha, Racheal; Oluwajulugbe, Oluwabusolami; Okoyomoh, Omeghie (Institute of Development Studies, 2021-08-13)
    Why do some fuel protests in Nigeria lead to a response from government, but others are barely noticed? What are the politics behind government response and who are the winners and losers? Using a multi-method approach, ...
  • Demanding Power: Contentious Politics and Electricity in Pakistan 

    Javed, Umair; Hussain, Aiza; Aziz, Hassan (Institute of Development Studies, 2021-06-03)
    This paper explores Pakistan’s electricity supply crisis that lasted from 2007 to 2015, and the ensuing contention that shaped public discourse and political events in the country. During this period, which witnessed ...
  • Accountability Bargains in Pakistan 

    Loureiro, Miguel; Pracha, Maheen; Ahmed, Affaf; Khan, Danyal; Ali, Mudabbir (Institute of Development Studies, 2021-05-27)
    Poor and marginalised citizens rarely engage directly with the state to solve their governance issues in fragile, conflict and violence-affected settings, as these settings are characterised by the confrontational nature ...
  • Navigating Civic Space in a Time of Covid: Synthesis Report 

    Anderson, Colin; McGee, Rosie; Nampoothiri, Niranjan; Gaventa, John; Forquilha, Salvador; Ibeh, Zikora; Ibezim-Ohaeri, Victoria; Jawed, Asiya; Khan, Ayesha; Pereira, Crescêncio; Alex, Shankland (Institute of Development Studies, 2021-05)
    Since long before the Covid-19 pandemic emerged in 2020, civic space has been changing all over the globe, generally becoming more restricted and hazardous. The pandemic brought the suspension of many fundamental freedoms ...
  • Navigating Civic Space in a Time of COVID-19: The Case of Mozambique 

    Pereira, Crescêncio; Forquilha, Salvador; Shankland, Alex (Institute for Social and Economic Studies, 2021-01)
    This report builds on the Action for Empowerment and Accountability (A4EA) research project Navigating Civic Space, which seeks to analyze the extent to which COVID-19 is contributing to the opening or closing of space for ...
  • Navigating Civic Space in a Time of Covid: Nigeria Country Report 

    Ibezim-Ohaeri, Victoria; Ibeh, Zikora (Spaces for Change, 2021-01)
    No country in the world expected the pandemic and the resulting health crisis. The sudden outbreak of the scourge forced countries, including Nigeria, to take charge and make difficult choices to contain disease spread. ...
  • The Civic Space in Nigeria: Before and Beyond Covid-19 

    Ibezim-Ohaeri, Victoria; Ibeh, Zikora (Spaces for Change, 2020-10)
    This baseline report sheds some light on the historical trajectory of the Nigerian civic space, particularly before and post-COVID, highlighting the emerging constraints and disruptions to political systems, and their ...
  • Navigating Civic Spaces in Mozambique Baseline Report 

    Pereira, Crescêncio; Forquilha, Salvador (Institute for Social and Economic Studies, 2020-09)
    This report explores the role of civil society organisations (CSOs) under the context of the recent history of Mozambique, arguing that civic spaces before the arrival of Covid-19 should be observed in the framework of the ...
  • Navigating Civic Spaces During a Pandemic: Pakistan Report 

    Khan, Ayesha; Khwaja, Aslam; Jawed, Asiya (Collective for Social Science Research, 2020-12)
    The Covid-19 pandemic exacerbated trends in civic spaces underway before 2020 in Pakistan, reinforcing the state’s on-going deep discomfort with rights-based actors and mobilizations whilst allowing the divisive rhetoric ...
  • Fuel Subsidy in Nigeria: Lessons in Leading the People's Side of the Tussle 

    Ojebode, Ayobami; Atela, Martin (PASGR, 2021-03)
    In this briefing for the A4EA Demanding Power Workstream PASGR researchers explore how organised labour and civil society organisations in Nigeria have recently lost their role in organising popular public protest against ...
  • Donor Action in Pakistan: A Comparative Case Study of CDIP and AAWAZ 

    Khan, Ayesha; Qidwai, Komal (Institute of Development Studies, 2021-03)
    This paper analyses findings from a study of the Consolidating Democracy in Pakistan (CDIP) and AAWAZ Voice and Accountability programmes, both funded by the UK government. The study is a contribution to the A4EA Research ...

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