Normal professionalism and the early project process: problems and solutions
The early project process is dominated by engineers and economists, and preoccupations with infrastructure, budgets, schedules, and quantification. The way professionals and organisations think and operate biases the process against poor people. A new professionalism and a new paradigm start with people rather than things, and adaptive processes rather than blueprints. Practical implications for thls approach include the need for calibre, commitment and continuity in field staff, restraint in funding, use of methods of rapid rural appraisal, and support for 'learning projects' without deadlines or targets.