Comparative Harambee: history and theory of voluntary collective behaviour
Bolnick, Bruce R.
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This paper explores some case studies of Harambee activity in pre-Independence America (pre-1776) to illustrate some interesting parallels with Kenyan self-help. An attempt is then made to distill from the examples a socio-economic theory of the basis for voluntary provision of collective consumption goods, contrasting greatly with traditional theories of "free rider" motivation. Finally conclusions are drawn concerning the nature of Harambee in Kenya and possibilities for more rational channelling of Harambee energies. This paper was originally prepared for the East African Universities Social Science Council Conference, Dar es Salaam, December 1973.