Short duration migration in India : an appraisal from census 2001
Short duration migration has played a crucial role in enabling rural people to cope with the consequences of agrarian distress and devastated rural economic conditions. Seasonal migration, in particular, has always been a phenomenon guided by the needs specific to time. Studies on short duration or seasonal migration are region and context specific due to this very reason seasonal migration has no broad associated characteristics at the macro level. Hence, this paper tries to focus on the method to assess the magnitude of short/seasonal migration based on its broad characteristics. It attempts to analyse the contrasting characteristics of short duration and permanent migration. The study applies the widely recognised demographic technique of Parity Progression Ratio to measure the magnitude of short duration migrants. The study reveals that short duration migrants are largely concentrated in rural areas and basically migrated in search of work/employment towards urban and other prosperous rural areas. Also, short duration migration is more common in the case of male migrants, while permanent migration is more common among female migrants. Short duration migrants are primarily illiterate and less qualified and belong to either the older age group or that below 14 years. While short duration migrants are impelled to migrate for work/employment, and permanent migrants seek better opportunities. The predominant streams of migration are urban to rural and rural to rural and the tendency is to migrate to other districts and states for work/employment in both rural and urban areas. Keywords: Short-duration migration, Temporary migration, Seasonal migration, Circular migration, Employment, Wage rates, Occupation, Destination, Earnings, Economic activity. JEL Classification: J6, J31, J38, J62, J64.