Participation and Exclusion in Mega Tree-planting Projects: A Case Study of the Ten Billion Tree Tsunami Programme, Pakistan
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Large-scale tree planting programmes have become politically attractive. They are claimed to be vital in tackling climate change and to provide big social and environmental benefits. This is a study of one such high-profile tree-planting project in Pakistan – the Ten Billion Tree Tsunami Programme. With a reported budget of US$700 million, this project claims so far to have planted over a billion trees and created 165,000 jobs. But evidence suggests a clear pattern of winners and losers. The wealthier few enjoy most of the benefits, while herders and others without land have been excluded. The programme needs to go beyond rhetorical claims of participation to install genuine inclusion and fair distribution of benefits.