This Briefing Note is intended for readers interested in understanding how Khartoum, with its complex political and land-related challenges, can move towards more inclusive development, and more accessible and affordable housing in particular. Khartoum vies with Dar es Salaam for being the fifth largest city in Africa. Its extended land nexus keeps expanding and settlements continue to spring up, some of them in plotted and more fully planned locations, and others growing informally. The sprawling city struggles to accommodate all its residents, with their vastly different levels of income. For example, sites and services schemes, the largest formal mechanism for housing provision, have often failed to advance: service providers do not want to invest in sparsely developed neighbourhoods, and neighbourhoods do not thrive without guaranteed service provision. New, more reliable partnerships that are based on realistic expectations are needed, as well as mechanisms to secure better coordination and cooperation, both among residents and with authorities and service providers. Solutions lie in housing schemes that are adjustable to different socioeconomic groups, recognising their different financial capacities and livelihood needs. The new situation created by the December Revolution may provide the momentum to initiate necessary reforms of land governance and management, and a new relation between the government, developers, and residents.