Bronchogenic cyst and pharyngeal fistula in an 81 year old female: a case report
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Bronchogenic cyst is a rare clinical; entity that occurs due to an anomalous development of the ventral foregut; they are usually single but may be multiple and can be filled with fluid or mucus. They have been found all along the transoesophageal course, in perihilar or intraparenchymal sites, with predilection for the area around the carina. The location of the cyst depends on the embryonic stage of development at which the anomaly occurs. When the abnormal budding occurs during the early development, the cyst tends to be located along the tracheobronchial tree. The cysts that develop later during the late development are more peripheral and may be located within the lung parenchyma. Bronchogenic cysts have also been described in more remote locations, including neck, interatrial septum, abdomen, and retroperitoneal space. Past reports emphasised that a bronchogenic cyst is usually asymptomatic and presents as an incidental finding, but more recent reports suggest that the majority of adults with bronchogenic cysts ultimately become symptomatic. The actual natural history and percentage of asymptomatic bronchogenic cyst in adults are not known because of the absence of long term follow up of a large group of patients with asymptomatic cyst. Symptomatic patients usually present with symptomatic related to cyst infection or compression of adjacent structures. Presentation in the elderly population is quite rare. It has been reported that approximately 0,6% of such cyst are noted in patients above the age of 60 years. Total documented cases of patients presenting after the age of 70 years have been noted to be only 8 in 2002.