A conceptual analysis of approaches to rural development
Mbithi, Philip M.
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Using Kenya as a case stndy, pragmatic dimensions of rural change are briefly discussed. Weaknesses are pointed out in the "directed change" approach to rural development and in the integrated, multi-dimensional approach. The criteria for a development from below strategy are presented which should help planners understand and effectively deal with the realities of the dynamism of rural development. Lastly, development from below in Kenya is reviewed through case study analysis of the Harambee self-help movement and an assessment of the current rural development efforts — the Special Rural Development Programme and the district planning strategy.