Metabolic Syndrome Disorders In Urban Black Zimbabweans With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
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Objective: The main aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome disorders and their interrelations in black Zimbabwean type 2 diabetic patients. Study Design: Prospective cross sectional study. Setting: Outpatient diabetic clinics at Harare and Parirenyatwa tertiary hospitals. Main Outcome Measures: We recruited 109 adult diabetic subjects attending a tertiary hospital Diabetic Clinic. Anthropometric and metabolic parameters were measured by standard methods. Eighty percent of the patients were hypertensive, 32% dyslipidaemic, 32% obese, 50% hyperinsulinaemic, 61% had poor • glycaemic control and 43% of the participants had the metabolic syndrome. The means of BMI and triglycerides were significantly different in hyperinsulinaemic versus non-hyperinsulinaemic patients (p<0.001 and 0.041 respectively), and diastolic blood pressure was significantly raised in the obese group (p=0.043). The following significant associations were observed, hyperinsulinaemia with the metabolic syndrome (odds ratio=3.9, p<0.001) as well with obesity (odds ratio=4.8, p<0.001), however, only a weak association was observed between hypertension and hyperinsulinaemia (odds ratio=2.5, p=0.064). Patients exhibiting three metabolic disorders (dyslipidaemia, hypertension and obesity) were five times more likely to be hyperinsulinaemic (p=0.025) and hypertensive patients were almost three times more likely to, be hyperinsulinaemic. Conclusion: In comparison to their counterparts from certain ethnic groups, this urban diabetic population is also burdened with a variety of metabolic disorders which are risk factors for coronary artery disease. In this population, hyperinsulinaemia has a relatively weak association with hypertension and the relationship between obesity versus diastolic blood pressure as well as hypertriglyceridaemia versus serum insulin levels requires further investigation.