Agricultural research for resource-poor farmers: the farmer-first-and-last model
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The normal 'transfer-of-technology' (TOT) model for agricultural research has built-in biases which favour resource-rich farmers whose conditions resemble those of research stations. A second, emerging model is 'farmer-first-and-last (FFL). This starts and ends with the farm family and the farming system. It begins with holistic and interdisciplinary appriasal of farm families' resources, needs and problems, and continues with on-farm and with- farmer R and D, with scientists, experiment stations and laboratories in a consultancy and referral role. FFL fits the needs and opportunities of resource-poor farm families better than TOT. FFL approaches promise a greater contribution from agricultural research to the eradication of rural poverty in India.