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dc.contributor.authorCarter, Becky
dc.identifier.citationCarter, B. (2017). Prevalence and Impacts of Child Labour in Agriculture. K4D Helpdesk Report. Brighton, UK: Institute of Development Studies.en
dc.description.abstractThis exploratory rapid review finds that child labour in agriculture is a global issue, with the agricultural sector accounting for the majority of child labourers. Across regions and countries agriculture is usually the main sector for children’s economic activity. However, there is considerable variation in the prevalence of child labour between and within countries. Agricultural child labour is mainly unpaid work on smallholder family farms, but is also found on commercial farms and plantations as well as through forced and trafficked child labour. Child labour is involved in crop production, livestock (including herding) and forestry as well as fishing and aquaculture. There are more boys than girls in agricultural child labour, and both tend to start young, sometimes before 10 years old. Girls tend to combine agricultural and domestic duties, and their work is more invisible, while male adolescents are more likely to be in hazardous work in agriculture than their female peers. Children from poor households, ethnic minorities, migrants and families with HIV/AIDS or disabled members are particularly vulnerable to agricultural child labour. Other drivers include agricultural dependency, social norms and a lack of higher returns to basic schooling. Almost 60 per cent of girls and boys (aged 5–17 years) in hazardous work are found in agriculture. Situations of heightened harm and danger include forced and trafficked child labour for agriculture as well as conflict and emergency situations. Nevertheless age-appropriate tasks can contribute to children’s well-being and development – in particular in rural contexts with a lack of returns to formal education, labour-intensive agricultural livelihoods and social acceptance of child labour.en
dc.publisherInstitute of Development Studiesen
dc.relation.ispartofseriesK4D Helpdesk Report;
dc.subjectChildren and Youthen
dc.subjectWork and Labouren
dc.titlePrevalence and Impacts of Child Labour in Agricultureen
rioxxterms.funderDefault funderen

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  • K4D [384]
    K4D supports learning and the use of evidence to improve the impact of development policy and programmes. The programme is designed to assist DFID and other partners to be innovative and responsive to rapidly changing and complex development challenges.

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