Transformational leadership and traditional african leadership practice : a study of two kingdoms.
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This paper seeks to demonstrate that some elements of what is now called transformational leadership can be found in the philosophy and leadership practices of some of the peoples of Africa. Part of the answer to our understanding of traditional leadership practices is provided in the African philosophy of ubuntu (Zulu), or botho (Sotho), or unhu (Shona). Using the Mutapa Empire of Zimbabwe and the Kingdom of Lesotho, the author argues that Africa has its own home grown leadership and governance traditions which, if modernized, could provide sustainable indigenous leadership models for the continent. An analysis of the lessons today's leaders can learn from these kingdoms is presented in the closing sections of the paper.